Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas
May akda: Eric C. Claudio, Teodora Luz Soto Mangahas
Ang pag-aaral ng kasaysayan ay hindi kalugod-lugod sa karamihan ng mag-aaral na kumukuha ng asignaturang ito. Subalit sila ay kinakailangang kuhanin ito upang ipasa at tapusin ang kanilang kurso. Sa dahilang ito, ang mga may akda ng aklat na ito ay pinilit at pinagsikapang talakayin ang kasaysayan ng Pilipinas sa pinakamadali at kalugod-lugod na pamamaraan.
Ang pagiging Pilipino ay hindi lamang ang pagsilang at pamumuhay sa Pilipinas bagkus ito ay ang pagkakaalam ng kanyang pinagmulan at tuloy ang kanyang patutunguhan. Kung ang bawat Pilipino ay clam ang kanyang kasaysayan, marahil ay ni sa guni-guni ay hindi niya nanaisin na ito ay talikuran at talikdan. Mayaman ang kasaysayan ng Pilipinas sa mga magaganda at kaakit-akit na gunita, ito ay parang terra ng pelikula na bumangon sa kanyang pagkakalugmok upang durugin ang kanyang mang-aapi at tuluyang tumayo sa kanyang sariling mga paa.
Ang kasaysayan ng isang bansa ay kapupulutan ng maraming anal at kaalaman na maaaring gawing batayan ng mga susunod na henerasyon. Ito ay magsisilbing pamantayan at lakas ng boob upang ipagpatuloy ang buhay na nasimulan kahit na sa kanyang tingin ay may mga balakid na nagtutulak sa kanyang maging tuliro sa kanyang pagkatao bilang mamamayan rig kanyang bansa.
Sa ating pag-aaral ng kasaysayan, matutuklasan nating lahat – lahat ng bansa gaano man kaunlad ay may pinagmulang kahirapan at kabiguan at gaano man kalakas ay may kagustuhang maging malaya o patuloy na maging malaya. Ang Pilipinas ay hindi kaiba sa lahat ng bansa, dumaan ito sa ib'at ibang pagsubok ng panahon tulad ng mga rebolusyong madugo at pati na rin ang mapayapa. Mababatid na ang Pilipinas ay may kasaysayang binigyang kulay at bahid ng iba't ibang bansa sa kanluran at silangan na sumakop at nag impluwensiya dito. Bagamat ang mga bansang ito ay nagbigay ng bagong kabihasnan sa ating bansa subalit hindi nangangahulugang tayo ay wala pang kabihasnan bago pa man dumating ang mga mananakop.
Sa boob ng mahabang panahon, ang Republika ng Pilipinas ay nagkaroon ng labing apat na pangulo at sa bawat pamumuno ng mga ito ay masisilayan ang pagkabigo at pagtatagumpay ng kanilang mga hakbangin upang itaguyod at paunlarin ang ating bansa. Sa boob ng mga panahong ito ay matutunghayan natin ang pagbulusok at pagbangon ng ating bansa. Magugunita ang panahon ng diktadura ni Pangulong Ferdinand E. Marcos na halos dalawampu't dalawang taon subalit tinapos lamang sa boob ng apat na araw ng isang mapayapang rebolusyon. Dagdag pa dito, ang pamumuno ni Pangulong Joseph E. Estrada na
diumano'y punong-puno ng katiwalian.
Sa ilalim ng Pangulong Gloria Macapagal Arroyo na siyang pumalit kay Estrada ay patuloy ang mga hamon sa ating bansa. Patuloy ang paglaban, pagsisikap at patuloy ang paggawa ng kasaysayan ng Pilipinas.
Isang panaginip na sandy lahat ng Pilipino scan mang panig ng mundo ay magkaroon ng kaalaman at interes sa kasaysayan ng kanyang bansa sapagkat dito lamang nya malalaman ang kanyang patutunguhan at tuloy maiwasan ang mga pagkakamali ng kanyang mga ninuno. Masarap ihatid sa susunod na henerasyon na ang kasalukuyang Pilipino kagaya mo at ako ay ginawa ang dapat gawin upang mahalin ang ating bansa sapagkat tayo ay may magagawa ngayon at ito ay ating gagawin.
Ang pag-unlad ng isang bansa ay nakasalalay sa pagkakaalam niya ng kanyang kasaysayan. Ayon nga sa ating pambansang bayaning si Dr. Jose Rizal, “Ang Pilipinas ay hindi maunlad kaya ang mga Pilipino ay tinatamad”. Samakatuwid, kung ang Pilipinas ay maunlad, ang mga Pilipino ay magkakaroon ng pagkakataon upang ipakita ang kanilang buong talento para dito.
Logic A foundation of Critical Thinking
Authors: Jensen DG. Mañebog, Jeremias F. Buraga, Rafael Y. Paragas, Ma. Rubeth R. Hipolito
BECAUSE THINKING CORRECTLY is an integral part of who we are as human beings, the idea of helping people develop their reasoning ability involves expanding who they are as rational beings. This is one of the many reasons teaching a course in Logic and Critical Thinking is perpetually exciting and gratifying.
Teaching students the subject Logic is equipping them with useful intellectual tools which also refine their viewpoint from which they view the world. As Logic also calls for the need to evaluate and persistently reassess one's concepts and even values, this academic discipline, in effect, aptly guides people in making wise decisions in life. Moreover, clear understanding of many things oftentimes leads to properly looking at the world and life itself. The dictum thus resounds: Logic, as is the case with other branches of Philosophy, may not teach us how to make a living, but it could teach us that life is worth living.
This book in Logic is written to serve as a comprehensive introduction to reasoning and Critical Thinking. It humbly aims to help the readers develop thinking abilities needed for academic study and career success as it fosters relatively advanced intellectual and language abilities.
Features of this Book
This book possesses various features that make it an effective tool for both instructor and students. This book is
- Logically Arranged. It begins with the basic things about Logic and Critical Thinking and then sequentially progresses to more sophisticated thinking—the critical evaluation of terms, propositions, and arguments, respectively.
- Written in Module Form. Each lecture comes with other important elements like objectives, discussions, activities, self-tests, and the like which make each module a holistic learning package.
- A Simplified Easy-to-Read Logic Book. Though simplifying Philosophy lectures is experientially easier said than done mission, this book nonetheless endeavores for this objective as it also contains other attributes that make the lectures reader-friendly. Whenever appropriate, sections are written in conversational tone using the `you' and 'we' pronouns as if talking to the readers. Furthermore, sensible and easy-to-understand examples are carefully chosen for each topic.
Logic The Basics of Correct Reasoning 2013 Edition
Authors: Rosendo S. Gualdo, Dennis M. Placido, Charlie M. Dagwasi
The human person is a rational being whose progress and survival depends to a large extent on his/her reasoning powers. It is imperative therefore that he/she hones this to the utmost extent in order to survive and prosper. His/her life, private or public, professional or personal, individual or social depends on his/her reasoning ability. Thus, there is a need for logic in his/her life both for personal and national development.
This Logic book discusses classical and modern logic to develop critical thinking among the students. It introduces students to the foundational concepts and theories of logic as applied to argumentation and debate and its significance to philosophical endeavor. It provides insights and understanding of the classical and symbolic logic.
Students are expected to engage in reflective and critical practice of making correct and valid reasoning which can serve as a good foundation to argumentation and debate and towards understanding human life. Finally, students are to think critically and form judgment on recurrent phenomena towards national development, appreciate making correct inferences from statements or premises conducive for holistic development; acquire correct thinking as manifested in his daily life activities; to modify clear ideas and express these in correct and proper terms for better community relations; to verify deceptive and erroneous reasoning for peace and unity; and to confidently engage in honest and respectable exchange of ideas; whether in formal setting (e.g. debate) or in ordinary day-to-day discourses by guiding him/her in making valid inferences and in establishing the truth of his/her conclusions and claims by way of correct reasoning.
Logic The Basics of Correct Thinking
Authors: Vicente S. Carbon, Winston B. Gallinero, Glenn G. Pajares
There are many literatures concerning Logic that present the basics of correct thinking such as simple apprehension, understanding terms and concepts, judgments and propositions, the kinds of inference, and the kinds of fallacies. However, only a few books provide an overview of philosophy vis-à-vis logic, and the relevance of Logic to other disciplines and in our day-to-day living.
This book provides the readers with an overview of philosophy in relation to Logic and the relevance of Logic to other disciplines such as the rigorous and the social sciences, and most importantly in our day-to-day living.
One of the unique features of this book is that in discussing the significance of Logic, the different schools of thought such as Platonic, Materialism, Aristotelian and Oriental are given overviews. The overviews are supplemented with Euler diagrams and a combination of Euler and Venn diagrams so that the readers will have vivid pictures of the schools of thought through symbols.
Another unique feature of this book is that it presents and clarifies in Module I the basic laws and principles governing correct thinking. This is very important because at the outset of the study of correct thinking, the readers are already aware of and will be guided by the foundational norms of classical logic.
The basic laws and principles governing correct thinking like the basic law on the truth of the antecedent and its consequent and the basic principles like the principle of identity and the principle of contradiction, among others, are further clarified in Module Ill concerning judgments and propositions. Moreover, these laws and principles are applied intensively in Module V concerning immediate inference and in Module VI which deals with mediate inference. Euler diagrams and Venn diagrams are also presented to supplement and clarify further the illustrative examples of the inferences.
But the most unique feature of this book is its constructive critique of the errors of some popular authors of Logic book by presenting and rectifying the errors such as the erroneous use of Venn diagrams which is dealt with in Module V, the erroneous classification of some fallacies into fallacies not of language or non-linguistic fallacies which is dealt with in Module VII.
Through the unique features of this book with emphasis to the last one, the authors fervently hope that the readers may realize also some insights like to simplify complex concepts and principles is far different from a simplistic discussion, having a broad and open mind is far better than having a myopic and close mind, and to detect an error is good but to constructively rectify it is better.
Enjoy reading and learning!
Mastering College Algebra Through Drills
Authors: Leo L. Lactuan, Imelda R. Lactuan, Lerna L. Ayco, Juliana B. Arquero, Marichu G. Mozo, Mary Jane A. Bundac, Siote I. Wy
Algebra is believed to be the queen of Mathematics. It encompasses all the other fields of Mathematics. One specific subject is College Algebra which is a basic subject in Mathematics for college freshmen under the umbrella of General Education required subjects. The rich experiences of mathematics mentors find many students to be math lovers but a voluminous number are anxious about the topics covered in the said subject or related subjects.
The ultimate goal of the authors is to pave the way for optimism in facing the challenges of teaching or learning mathematics topics, particularly in College Algebra. Hopefully, the prepared roster of objectives, presentations of concepts/rules/ properties/theorems and examples, required answers to drills (both algorithmic and practical applications), and the chapter tests are alleys to attain the goals/objectives of this book that are made easy and convenient for both the teachers and the students_
The book is likewise designed to be preparatory to Advanced Algebra as it includes topics that are arranged in hierarchy of necessity/importance. Hence, may the wish be realized_
The authors would like to express their profound gratitude to the authors of their references, the PSU and WPC administrations, with able leadership of Dr. Deter S. Sespeñe and Dr. Elsa P. Manarpaac, respectively.
The same amount of gratitude is extended to authors' students, Ma'am Bot Corpuz, Mutya Publishing House, Inc. through Mr. Arnel Tedranes, Ms. Luisa Temblique and Ms. Nerissa Gabelo and mare importantly their families, who serve as their inspirations.
Above everything the authors are indebted to the Omnipotent God, the source of their strength, knowledge, wisdom and everything.
National Service Training Program (A Modular Worktext for NSTP 1)
Authors: Florida C. Labuguen, Jennifer L. Amaranto
The need for preparing the youth for their duties as citizens via the National Service Training Program (NSTP) cannot be overemphasized.
As embodied in RepublicAct No. 9163, the NSTP Law of 2011 has ushered a new direction in training the Filipino youth for the duties and responsibilities of citizenship. This citizenship program purports to prepare the youth for their primordial tasks as nation-builders and citizen-soldiers in response to the clarion call of the times.
As an educational program and a curricular requirement, it is aimed at transforming the youth into productive assets for local and national development. Based on the findings from history that there are much to be expected from the intrinsic and potential value of the young Filipino, the Program is designed to develop knowledge, skills and values in order for them to become good citizens.
To attain the objectives of NSTP, this modular work-text attempts to present a comprehensive overview of the Program.
The whole gamut of insights and activities relative to NSTP contained in this work-text satisfies the need for instructional material that meets the prescribed guidelines for the implementation of RA 9163.
The student-trainees will find this modular work-text useful, relevant and responsive to the contemporary situation. The zealous and vibrant response of our youth to the realization of the ends of this Program will constitute a covenant in building sustainable communities in the country for national development.
It is with fervent hopes that the school officials and authorities mandated by law to operationalize this vital aspect of youth empowerment through citizenship education will optimally use this resource material in the delivery of subjects covered
on the first leg of part of NSTP, especially along the subjects of the 25-hour common module phase in pursuit of that ultimate end of moulding the young people into civic and defense-prepared individuals for nation building.
For comments and suggestions, please contact the Philippine Society of NSTP Educators and Implementers, Incorporated, through e-mail address: PSNEI_INC@ yahoo.com.ph.
An endeavor of this magnitude entails an enormous debt of gratitude.
National Service Training Program (with Common and Specific Modules)
Authors: Rogelio I. Espiritu, Maria Rosario E. Monce, Madeleine M. Co, Jayme C. Ignacio, Katherine C. Guevarra
With the aim of giving quality teaching and learning experience to teachers, students as well as other community developers, social workers and others doing extension and community services, this worktext is conceptualized and realized.
This hook is divided into two (2) parts:
Common Module — Enhancing Awareness to Social Issues and Problems; and
Specific Module — Developing Oneself Thru Community Involvement
At the end of each chapter are worksheets, which will be answered by the students. These will serve as a form of evaluation on the extent of learning they have gained from each chapter.
This hook hopes to fulfill the objectives of the National Service Training Program (NSTP); i.e., to bring back the awareness of students as well as mentors of various traits and values, namely: civic responsibility, patriotism, leadership, assertiveness, concern for people and environment and lastly, to be an active mobilizer of the community working together to solve problems and issues confronting them.
National Service Training Program Civic Welfare Training Service
Authors: Arnold L. Espinas, Propecasio D. Dalangin, Miguel R. Santos, Marilyn T. de Jesus
This reference text is a result of a long search for the appropriate materials for the Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS). One of the principal aims of the NSTP is to instill in the minds of the young Filipinos the culture of volunteerism. But developing a high sense of volunteerism is not enough to make the young citizens become effective agents of development. In order to become an effective community worker, each student of CWTS must possess not only the ability to identify the problems of a community. He must also exhibit the ability to understand causes and effects of those problems which will provide great help in formulating the kind of intervention needed to confront them.
The task of student community workers is not easy, especially on the part of those still in the process of gaining accurate perspective of the dynamics of the community. Each community is characterized by various complexities of sociocultural realities. That is indeed the reason why the authors believe that there can never be one written material capable of providing complete answers to the issues of even one community. But even so, this reference text hopes to share relevant information that will encourage young individuals to become empowered members of the society to which they belong. Empowerment would mean being always ready to initiate actions instead of just being plain participants in any community building efforts.
Pathways to Effective Communication in English
Authors: Theresa Y. Pesayco, Cherry Ann J. Gulay, Marianne P. Afrondoza, Dinah C. Hernandez, Mary Cris L. Ipan, Ediwn L. Nebria, Honorio P. Jumilla
Author/Coordinator: Nerissa C. Gabelo
“(Books are the plane, and the train, and the road: 'They are the destination and the journey. They are home.”
– How Reading Changed My Life, Anna Quindlen
The goal of every student in the tertiary level education is a career path that eventually improves the quality of life. The tool to achieve this goal is a challenge that all academic institutions recognize and competitively try to offer. Academic excellence becomes a drum-beater for all schools that boast of quality education.
Learning is a dynamic process that entails holistic development of a human being. Anchored on this vision, this book sets the benchmark for the comprehensive, practical and communicative learning of the English language. This book aims to set the students to achieve mastery of the English language through a ladderized approach–interrelated lessons that are arranged from the simplest to the most complex—keeping in mind how the human brain functions best when ideas are placed in good order.
This book is divided into two major parts—Structure of the English Grammar and Paragraph Development. Each part of the book is designed with learning elements that are distinctly adaptive to the lessons' content.
Part 1 – Structure of the English Grammar focuses on the comprehensive discussion of the eight parts of speech and introductory lessons on writing elements and writing mechanics. Each lesson contains Stumbling Blocks that serves as both diagnostic testing and lesson springboard for the students. The Path Finders is a comprehensive discussion of the lesson with numerous examples to ensure complete understanding of the lesson. The Learning Alley is the part where the students get to evaluate their understanding of the lesson through two sets of exercises that provide a variety of assessment.
Part 2 – Paragraph Development consists of lessons on methods of exposition through different patterns of paragraph development. Each lesson consists of Path Finders that discusses Do's and Don't's and How's of the writing process. The Writing Pointers presents sample paragraphs with sub-elements that guide the reading and writing of the method. The Pen's Tip includes pointers that guide students in understanding the mechanics of writing. Word Factory contains difficult words that are unlocked for better understanding of the sample paragraph. In The Note presents practical guidelines on the process of paragraph development. Comprehension Questions are provided to ensure that the paragraph's content is fully understood. The Writing Tips lists handy and practical pieces of advice on how to further improve
PE 3 (Domingo)
Authors: John Paul R. Domingo, Jeniffer L. Amaranto, Rhodalyn R. Javier, Marilyn J. Esteban
Individual and Dual Sports provide students with opportunities to acquire knowledge of strategies and develop skills in selected individual and dual sports, and maintain and/or improve their personal fitness. The content includes knowledge and application skills, techniques, strategies, rules, and safety practices. Individual and dual sports selected may include but not be limited to other sports.
Serving as legal foundation for this book is indicated in Section 19, Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution for which mandates ARTICLE XIV, EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ARTS, CULTURE AND SPORTS. Spefically, stated as:
Section 19. (1) The State shall promote physical education and encourage sports programs, league competitions, and amateur sports, including training for international competitions, to foster self-discipline, teamwork, and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry.
(2) All educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors.
This subject analyses some individual and dual sports from an educational and practical dimension. For this, it uses two principles: methodological aspects and the essence of each sport. This subject tries to discover methodological tools that allow us to consider sport not only as something competitive and technical but also as an essential component for training a person, for social cohesion and skills acquisition for health.
It is necessary to know the essence of each sport from a technical, tactical and practical point of view to identify more characteristic elements and to know how to adapt and apply them in the educational process from a motor point of view as well as attitudes, rules and values.
On the other hand, the reader may notice a lot of entries from the internet as the entire book is being read. The internet is a very good source of information but also contains a lot of unpolished and unreliable information. Rest assured, materials sourced from the internet were carefully evaluated according to the authors' expertise in the subject matters.
The authors of this book are indebted to the persons responsible of the various sources cited in this book. Special gratitude to Mr. Jerome M. Katipunan of the Mutya Publishing House, Inc. for his trust and confidence to the authors, and more particularly, for the opportunity to contribute, in this humble way we can, in the effort to better facilitate the teaching-learning process in the tertiary level.
Likewise, gratefulness is due to all the teachers who will find this book useful in their classes, and all Physical Education 3 students who will, hopefully, will appreciate the value of this book in their pursuit for knowledge and skills for a better life that they all deserve.
PE2 – Biñan (Revised)
Authors: John Paul R. Domingo, Joanna B. Alonte, Paulina A. Co, Adeluisa B. Alonte, Flordeliza V. Garcia, Mila C. Janson, Ceasar F. Nimor, Janette A. Salvadora, Hernan A. Nazuel
Welcome to the world of dance, one of the simplest forms of artistic expression and non-verbal communication, since it makes use of one's body as the medium. Dance is one of the best manifestations of a human being as a member of a society and is the most important vehicle to express one's culture.
Everyone can dance or has the potential to perform and it takes a simple motivation for someone to get into it. This Beginner's Dance Book could be a significant tool to motivate one to take up dancing as a hobby or as a vocation to become a dance educator. One has to simply learn the basics of dancing and these volumes of notes are designed for that purpose.
As the title of this book denotes, this is what beginners should emphasize to have a firsthand knowledge about dance.
Dance is a very vast word with abundance of meanings from its history, terms, elements, objectives, forms and positions. As the beginner starts reading the book, he will find in its earnest the information about the wide world of dance.
This book is divided into seven units, namely: Unit I: Introduction to Rhythmic Dance
Activities; Unit The Dance Education Program; Unit III: Dance Fundamentals and Patterns; Unit IV: Folk Dance Genre; Unit V: Recreational Dance; Unit VI: Social Dance; and Unit VII: Contemporary Dance. The book also contains simple descriptions of music and tempo terms, system and manner of counting that could be useful in creating dance step combinations. Also featured in this book are authentic choreography of Philippine and Foreign Folk dances, Social and Contemporary dances with their respective historical backgrounds.
Chapter tests and practical tests are provided at the end of each chapter. This book will also help physical education teachers with no background in dance. However, teachers are advised to conduct other activities that will address the varying needs of their students and to evaluate students aptitude and performance using varied forms of instruments for reliability, accuracy, and validity.
The authors are indebted to the authors of the various sources cited in this book. We also wish to express our gratitude to Mr. Jerome M. Katipunan of the Mutya Publishing House, Inc. for his trust and confidence in us, and more specially, for the opportunity to contribute, in this humble way that we can, in the effort to better facilitate the teaching-learning process in the tertiary level. Likewise, gratitude is due to all teachers and students, who will find this book useful in their physical education classes.
It is our desire to encourage anyone with the interest, skill and dedication of getting into dance education through knowledge of the various styles of dancing, dances of the Philippines and other parts of the world. This is our humble contribution in making the student become aware of his potentials, what he can do, and what he can be; and to broaden his horizons by knowing one's culture and of other nations through more Filipino and Foreign Dances.
We hope that this book will serve its purpose to all those who love to dance.
Philippine Government and Constitution
Authors: Atty. Sherwin Prose C. Castañeda, Dr. Rolando A. Bernales, Prof. Juan Jaime D. Nolasco, Prof. Mark Roy L. Boado, Prof. Tristan A. Reyes
Prof. Emily B. Baluyot, Dr. Romero E. Javier, Prof. Bernalyn F. Pa-at, Prof. Nestor C. Vallestero, Dr. Joy C. Villahermosa
This book is primarily intended for the undergraduate study in government and the 1987 Constitution. This, however, may very well serve as a handy reference not only to college students but also to every person interested in acquiring knowledge of the basic framework of our government.
This book grew out from the lectures and notes made by the authors while teaching the course and/or while studying Law. Said lectures and notes were later on consolidated into a book in the attempt to present to the readers a simplified but complete text in the study of Philippine Government and the 1987 Constitution.
Varied activities were suggested alter each discussion to reinforce learning. These activities may also be employed as the professor's alternative assessment tools. It is hoped that these activities wilt make the study of this course more meaningful and interesting for the students.
Tests were likewise provided after each chapter. The tests herein provided may be employed by the professor either as models for test construction, assignments For the students or evaluation instrument of how much the students mastered the objectives enumerated before each discussion. Should the professor decides to make use of the tests as tools for evaluating students' mastery, the authors suggest that the professor be not limited by the items provided as these tests are open for revisions depending on the emphasis made during the class discussions or on other factors that may warrant such professor's discretion.
The authors extend their heartfelt thanks to their respective family, relatives, colleagues,, and friends for their unending support, love,, and inspiration.. The authors also like to extend their deepest gratitude to all persons who contributed to the realization of this work; and most of all to Almighty God for the gift of knowledge and for all His blessings.
This humble work is dedicated to all those who share the authors' dream of great things for our beloved Country.
Mabuhay ang sambayanang Pilipino!